Gynaecologic surgery unit
This unit is specialized in the surgical treatment of tumours that affect the female reproductive system: cancer of the ovary, endometrial cancer (uterus); cancer of the uterine cervix.
Currently, there are no diagnostic tests that allow the early detection of ovarian cancer as with mammography for breast cancer. Clinically, three symptoms have been described that do appear and persist for several weeks and are motives for medical consultation: increase in the abdominal perimeter, changes in the intestinal rhythm (diarrhoea or constipation) and appearance of heavy digestions.
The main treatment of ovarian cancer is cytoreductive surgery which is based on removal of all the tumour masses found in the abdomen: ovaries, the uterus, the pelvic and/or aortic ganglia, greater omentum, as well as all the tumour nodules of the peritoneal zone. It involves a highly complex surgery that must be performed by a specialist surgeon with experience in this type of intervention.
The endometrium is a tissue that covers the internal walls of the uterus and this is why it is called cancer of the uterus.
The majority of cases of endometrial cancer are also diagnosed in initial phases and its treatment offers a high probability of success. The most characteristic symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding especially in menopausal women.
The treatment of endometrial cancer requires a surgical intervention in which it is necessary to remove the uterus (hysterectomy), the ovaries and, in some cases, the lymph nodes near the uterus.
A significant number of cases of endometrial cancer are diagnosed in early stages of the disease, which prevents many subsequent chemotherapy treatments. Usually, radiotherapy is administered to ensure local control of the disease.
The cervix is the lower part of the uterus and its function is to connect the womb with the vaginal zone. Cytology is the diagnostic test that is used for early detection of this type of cancer.
Unlike other cancers, cervical cancer mostly affects young women and is diagnosed with cytology, a test that makes it possible to detect if abnormal cells have appeared. Cytology allows diagnosis of most cervical cancers in their earliest phases and therefore, the likelihood of cure is very high.
In these cases, treatment consists of performing a surgical intervention to remove the uterus, part of the vagina, the parametrium (a tissue adjacent to the vagina) and the lymph nodes near the cervix. It is a complex operation, due to the secondary effects it can cause (sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence); thus, it is important that it be performed by specialist surgeons.
If cervical cancer is diagnosed in advanced phases, treatment does not include surgery and it is based on a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
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